AirCraft Casualty Emotional Support Services Archive

AirCraft Casualty Emotional Support Services

TERMINOLOGY

1.1 To ensure that readers understand the sense in which it is used in the context of this document, it is
reviews the following terminology: aircraft operator, aircraft accident, accident investigation authority
aviation accidents, airport operator, coordinator or coordinating body, family, family assistance,
family assistance providers, State of the event, survivor and victim. Descriptions of these terms are
apply only to the operative part of this document and not to those presented, prepared outside of ICAO.

AIRCRAFT OPERATOR
1.2 The aircraft operator is the person, body or company that is engaged, or proposes to engage, in the
aircraft operation.

AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT
1.3 The definition of “accident” is reproduced below as it appears in Annex 13 to the Convention on Civil Aviation
International — aircraft accident and incident investigation:
Any event related to the use of an aircraft, which, in the case of a manned aircraft, occurs between the time
at which a person boards the aircraft, intending to fly, and the time at which all persons
have disembarked, or in the case of an unmanned aircraft, occurring between the time the aircraft is ready to
traveling for the purpose of conducting a flight and the time at which it stops, at the end of the flight, and turns off its
main propulsion, during which:
a) any person suffers fatal or serious injury as a result of:
— Being in the aircraft, or by direct contact with any part of the aircraft, including parts that have been
Detached from the aircraft, or by direct exposure to jet blast,
except where injuries are due to natural causes, self-inflicted, or caused
by other people or in the case of injuries suffered by clandestine passengers hidden outside the designated areas
normally passengers and crew; either
b) the aircraft sustains structural damage or failure that:
— adversely its structural strength, performance or flight characteristics; Y
— that normally require major repair or replacement of the affected component, except for component failure or damage
engine, when the damage is limited to a single engine (including its hood or accessories); propellers, wingtips, antennae, probes,
blades, tires, brakes, wheels, fairings, panels, landing gear doors, windshields, aircraft skin
(such as small dents or gouges), or for minor damage to main rotor blades, trim rotor blades,
landing gear and those resulting from hail or bird strikes (including radome punctures) or
c) the aircraft disappears or is totally inaccessible.

AVIATION ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION AUTHORITY
1.4 The aircraft accident investigation authority is a government body, agency or commission that has
primary responsibility for aircraft accident investigation, under Annex 13. Some States refer to
to this authority as the operational safety investigation authority.

AIRPORT OPERATOR
1.5 The airport operator is the person, organization or company dedicated to the operation of an airport.

COORDINATOR OR COORDINATING ORGANISM
1.6 The coordinator (or the coordinating body) is the person (or organization) that must ensure a link
balance between the resources and agencies needed to provide the right information and deliver the optimal assistance
to the victims and their families.
1.7 The appointment of a coordinator or coordinating body requires careful attention to ensure
that the full potential of resources will be realized as quickly and economically as possible. The coordinator or agency
must coordinate to ensure that the various organizations do not deviate from their predetermined roles through
specific arrangements and do not enter into conflict when it is required that, even though they are different, they provide similar forms of
information and assistance. May also act as a point of contact between families and government agencies.

The plane is considered the safest means of transportation. However, this has not led, naturally, to a figure of 0 accidents. In fact, throughout history there have been authentic air disasters such as the one that took place on March 27, 1977 at Los Rodeos airport in Tenerife. We take advantage of the anniversary to make a list of the 10 worst air accidents of which we are aware. They are ordered from the least serious, within, of course, gravity, to the deadliest.

  1. American Airlines

On May 25, 1979, an American Airlines plane that was going to cover the route between Chicago and Los Angeles crashed shortly after taking off from O’Hare airport. It killed 273 people , of whom two were on the ground. The reason for the disaster was the detachment of the left wing engine . The plane managed to rise about 100 meters from the ground, traveled 1,500 meters and crashed into a hangar. Fuel spilled and the plane caught fire.

9.Iran Air

On July 3, 1988, Iran Air Flight 655 was shot down by a missile launched from a US Navy ship . The mistake of the Americans, despite already having state-of-the-art combat equipment in those years, cost the lives of 290 people . The incident happened during the Gulf War. The Navy said at the time that it had made up to 11 radio warning calls on different frequencies before firing.

8.Air Africa

In Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, one of the worst air tragedies in history occurred in 1996. An Air Africa plane carrying an excessive load crashed into a street market while trying to take off. The aircraft was fully loaded with fuel, so when it crashed it caught fire. The death toll figures range between 227 and 348 . It later emerged that the plane was carrying weapons for the war in Angola.

7.Malaysian Airlines

What happened to Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 in October 2014 remains a mystery to this day. The aircraft took off from Kuala Lumpur and was destined for Beijing. After a few hours of flight, the connection with the plane was lost, which mysteriously disappeared with 239 people on board . Until January 17, 2017, the remains of the plane were being searched. First in the waters of the Gulf of Thailand and its surroundings, where the plane was supposed to have failed, and later in the Indian Ocean far from the mainland, where they led to new tracks. The search returned no results.

  1. Saudia

301 people died in the Saudia Lockheed L-1011 Tristar fire. Flight 163 had to cover the route between Karachi and Jeddah, making a stopover in Riyadh. The aircraft left Karachi on August 19, 1980. The first leg of the flight proceeded normally. However, a few minutes after takeoff, an alarm began to sound indicating a fire in the hold . Confusion between the pilot, co-pilot and crew would follow and, although recommended procedures were followed, the control tower in Riyadh was not informed of the fire. Finally, the pilot was able to land in Riyadh, but a series of damages to the plane caused by the fire slowed down the opening of the aircraft and the evacuation was made too late.

  1. Turkish Airlines

The Turkish Airlines flight 981 accident happened in 1974. It was a flight scheduled to travel from Istanbul to London, with a stopover in Paris. The aircraft landed safely in the French capital and was completely filled as a result of a strike by the British European Airways company, which caused many travelers to take the Turkish plane to return to London. When the machine was flying over the French city of Meaux, the air traffic controllers of that city received a distorted signal and the plane disappeared from the radar. Subsequent investigation revealed that a decompression occurred, as a result of the failure of a rear cargo hatch, causing the floor of the McDonnell Douglas DC-10 to explode. The plane crashed in the forest from Ermenonville, near the town of Senlis. 346 people died .

  1. Flight crash in Charkhi Dadri (New Delhi)

Known as the deadliest mid-flight accident , it involved two aircraft: a Saudi Arabian Airlines Boeing 747 and a Kazakhstan Airlines Ilyushin Il-76. Both planes were flying on the same route in opposite directions. 349 people died in the accident.. It happened in 1996. The investigations blamed the Kazakh plane, since the pilot did not respect the altitude of 15,000 feet that he was assigned and descended to the 14,000 that the Saudi plane maintained. The possibility that the commanders had not clearly received the control orders because they did not fully understand English was also considered. Finally, it was concluded that the air infrastructure that New Delhi had was obsolete, since the radars did not measure the altitude of the aircraft, only their approximate position.

  1. Japan Airlines

The Boeing 747SR registered as JA8119 was scheduled to leave Haneda International Airport in Tokyo for Osaka International Airport. It took off as planned, but after 44 minutes the plane crashed. In the investigation after the accident, which cost the lives of 520 people and in which four women miraculously survived , it was discovered that the plane had crashed 7 years earlier, when the tail touched the ground while landing at Itami airport. This incident would have damaged the rear bulkhead that caused the fatal accident. In addition, the corresponding repair did not meet the standards established by the manufacturer Boeing and when it was fixed it was estimated that the aircraft could perform 10,000 more takeoffs. That of August 12, 1985 was takeoff number 13,320.

  1. The Rodeos (Tenerife)

The plane crash in Los Rodeos, on the island of Tenerife, is qualified as the deadliest in history. The incident occurred on March 27, 1977 and killed no more and no less than 587 people . Two planes were involved in the accident: a KLM 4805 and a Pan Am PAA 1736. The first was heading from Amsterdam to Gran Canaria airport and the second was coming from New York and had the same destination.

And what were two large aircraft doing in an airportmuch less prepared than the Gran Canaria aerodrome? The reason was that the one in Gran Canaria was closed after a bomb had exploded hours before and a second bomb threat had been received. The flights were redirected for a few hours to nearby airports such as Los Rodeos.

Los Rodeos had only one runway to take off , it was Sunday and there was only one operator in the control tower. After the reopening of the Gran Canaria airport, the KLM plane received permission to start its engines and move on the main runway. The controller then decided to expedite the matter and ordered that, instead of taking the secondary runway, intended for ground transfers, it should continue along the main runway without deviating and make a 180-degree turn to await confirmation of takeoff.

Three minutes later, the Pan Am flight was instructed to move down the runway and leave it at the third left exit. He had to confirm once the maneuver was over. However, that day there was a lot of fog , the pilot did not see the start and continued until the fourth.

Bad weather conditions that made vision difficult and poor coordination with the control tower caused the two planes to collide while taking off.

The crash caused a fire in the KLM plane, which fell to the ground moving 300 meters from the impact site. The Pan Am plane also caught fire, but some passengers were saved.

The Los Rodeos accident gave rise to measures to be taken regarding the regulation and standardization of international commercial air communications . Since then all control towers and pilots must use common phrases in English . Aircraft began to have automatic navigation systems for foggy days . It was also emphasized that cabin procedures should be carried out after joint decisions between the controls and the cabin crew.